威兼希尔公司是什么套 /Right to Food

UK food poverty: The Right to Food is a human right

Imogenmond-Bishopreflects on the fight for the right to food in the UK, and how it intersects with land and workers’ rights.

英国的食品体系充满矛盾。一方面,数百万人难以获得和负担粮食,但另一方面,该国并不缺乏粮食,甚至不缺乏财富。此外,尽管食品部门获得了巨大的财政利润,农场工人和食品零售人员both in the UK and abroad have serious financial worries.

在这个博客中,我希望解释为什么我们需要英国政府与权力下放的政府合作,更好地保护我们的食物权,以便有意义地采取措施消除家庭粮食不安全,并开始建立一个保护环境和工人的粮食系统。

食物的权利

英国历届政府都签署了国际条约,其中包括保护儿童的条款食物的权利。这些权利包含在内经济,社会和文化权利国际公约(ICESCR), 这Convention on the Rights of the Child,和Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

这些条约呼吁各国作为责任承担者尊重,保护和履行所有人的食物权。只有当个人无法通过他们所处理的手段享有食物的权利时,国家被迫直接履行或提供。一个例子可以通过提供尊严的可持续发展的国家“william hill中文网站威廉希尔中文网站送餐上门“对无法为自己做饭的人的服务。

While interconnected, human rights are traditionally divided into two groups: on the one hand there are civil and political rights, on the other, economic, social and cultural rights. The right to food sits in the latter group. In domestic legislation, we have the Human Rights Act that upholds our civil and political rights, and the Equalities Act that aims to prevent discrimination. Whilst there is some progress in the devolved nations, we do not yet have any equivalent legislation that upholds our economic and social rights across all of the UK. This lack of incorporation means that if a person's right to food is violated, then there is没办法寻求补救或补救在国内法院。

从人权的角度看食物有什么意义?人权使我们能够关注贫穷和不平等的根源,并审查不同问题之间的交叉点,例如粮食与住房或粮食与教育之间的交叉点。

最后,至关重要的是,人权是普遍的,并提供所有人。这意味着,无论一个人的种族,性别或年龄如何,政府都有义务确保在没有歧视的情况下始终尊重他们的食物权。

英国的粮食贫困

In the UK,millions of people experience household food insecurity。这意味着它们被迫跳过饭菜或吃少和/或较差的品质食物。英国的某些群体不成比例地经历粮食不安全:这些包括残疾人,孤独的父母,黑色,亚洲和少数民族,寻求庇护者,人民的人No Recourse to Public Funds”, as well as, more broadly, people on lower incomes.

英国的家庭食品不安全不是由该国的缺乏食物造成的。相反,它是由于个人没有足够的资金,通过他们的收入和/或福利支付给予食物。在英国的饥饿需要在个人决策的背景下理解。应该看出,与不断上升的生活成本,停滞不前和不稳定的工作以及Dwwindling福利付款有关。

The cause of the disconnect between household incomes and living costs in part stems from a series of austerity-justified tax and welfare reforms undertaken over the past decade that were more likely to对贫困家庭产生负面影响than richer households. Furthermore, “hostile environment” immigration measures have left asylum seekers with less money than they need to live on, and people with "No Recourse to Public Funds” are excluded from the welfare state entirely.

Whilst food aid is not the solution to food poverty, it can help illustrate the growing scale of household food insecurity in the UK. Year on year there have been significant increases in both the number of food aid providers as well as the number of food parcels distributed by the Independent Food Aid Network (IFAN) and by the Trussell Trust network.

The pandemic has seriously exacerbated food insecurity. IFAN saw a分布的食物包裹数量增加177%从2019年5月到2020年5月,在第一个Covid-19锁定的前三周,估计有300万人据报道饿了,这个小组中的一半没有吃了一整天。残疾的成年人,黑人,亚洲和少数民族的人和带儿童的家庭被认为是由于Covid-19而遭受家庭粮食不安全的群体。这表明虽然Covid-19没有区分,society does,leaving some people athigher risk of experiencing hardship比其他人好。

家庭粮食不安全的解决方案必须是工作和福利制度的基于权利的重新思考,以及移民制度,以确保所有人都能够以尊严和可持续的方式提供所需的食物。william hill中文网站威廉希尔中文网站一些地方当局正在领先食物权。今年到目前为止,两者都是Liverpooland曼彻斯特have pledged to be Right to Food cities.

在立即的未来,我们需要一种现金初步的方法,使家庭能够提供所需的食物和其他必需品。近期突出显示school food parcels scandal当社交媒体被淹没的私人餐饮企业提供的食物包裹淹没时 - 至少是私有化的粮食援助不是解决方案。

Food production, people and planet

食物的权利当然延伸到食品的生产以及这对环境以及工人权利的后果。

In the UK, land ownership is highly concentrated. In England, half of the country is owned byless than 1% of the population,这些地主大多是男性和白人。土地集中和缺乏土地使用权正受到若干倡议的挑战,其中包括Land In Our Names (LION)- a Black-led, grassroots collective that is committed to reparative justice in Britain by securing land for BPOC (Black people and People of Colour) communities.

看看谁拥有土地,也很重要,也是重要的,也是在土地上工作的人的工作和生活条件。A tractor driver who spoke to my Sustain colleague is representative of many of his colleagues when he said that he felt his employment was precarious and characterised by “ever lower wages, reduced employment rights, falling health and safety standards, increased job and housing insecurity”.

一些agricultural workers in the UK主要来自罗马尼亚和保加利亚,每天工作15小时,工资低于最低工资,生活条件“可怕”。即使在工作条件并不可怕的情况下,农业仍然是低收入和危险的:事实上,伤亡率使其成为英国最不安全的行业。当然,随着英国大量进口食品,其他国家和地区的工作实践trade dealshave a significant impact on the right to food, both domestically and globally.

估值的农场工人是拥有公平农业制度的基础,所有工人应尽可能地支付生活工资。然而,在2013年,政府在英格兰和威尔士报告了农业工资委员会,是农业工人的主要工具,用于统称谈判与雇主升起的薪酬。

食物的权利also extends to future generations, meaning that our food production must not be harmful to the environment oroutstrip planetary boundaries. 不幸的是,在大多数类别中,英国明显超过了拟议的环境边界——生物多样性损失55%,海洋健康64%,土地利用变化250%,气候变化410%。如果我们要有效地应对气候变化,我们就需要解决粮食系统发挥的作用。

Guaranteeing the right to food in the UK

很明显,食物不能被视为商品并留给市场,而是需要被理解为一个基本的人权,必须为所有人维持。

实现这项权利必须包括确保人们有能力体面地购买粮食,以及尊重在粮食系统工作的人的权利,从种植者到采摘者,再到商店工作人员。这需要通过财富和权力的再分配来实现,包括在粮食系统内部和整个社会。在英国这样一个富裕的国家,如此高水平的贫困是没有借口的。

Imogenmond-Bishopis coordinator of theRight to Food计划威廉希尔中文网站:改善粮食和农业联盟伦敦经济学院社会和经济公平大西洋研究员。她在微博上说Imogen_RB.

本文首次发表于此关于想要博客的战争。它在WAR WANVER WEBINAR的战争中调整了IMOGON的演示文稿“回收食品系统:为”食物权“举行的斗争”The World Transformedin September 2020.向匮乏开战works in the UK and with partners around the world to fight poverty and defend human rights, as part of the movement for global justice.

2021年4月1日
Right to Food

Right to Food: Everyone has the right to enjoy safe, nutritious and sustainable food. This project advocates the realisation of the Right to Food in UK law.

Imogen joined Sustain at the end of 2017 as the coordinator for the new Right to Food project. The Right to Food Project is a collaboration between Sustain, Just Fair, Nourish Scotland, and the Institute of Health and Society of the University of Newcastle. Sustain’s work on this project is funded by theBaring Foundation.

Imogenmond-Bishop
食品协调员粮食贫困的权利

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